Determination of skidding distance with GIS in the lowland and hilly terrain conditions
Skidding of wood assortments is the most expensive phase of transport and the whole production proces. The skidding costs depend on effect of skidder, and it depends on average skidding distance. According to that, determination of skidding distance is very important from the point of view of the skidding costs and a forest accessibility. The skidding distance is one of four indicators of the forest accessibility. Consequently, we analyzed terrain and site conditions and the network of forest roads into Forest management unit “Prosara” (FMU “Prosara”) by ArcGIS software. It belongs to lowland and hilly reliefe area based on the analysis of DTM of the FMU “Prosara”. The real skidding distance was determined by ArcGIS software, as a product of geometric skidding distance and skidding factor. Geometric skidding distance is a distance between center of gravity of compartment and a forest road. It should be multiplied by skidding factor which depends on reliefe and the presence of obstacles on the surface which should be circumvented. Average geometric skidding distance is 527 m for FMU “Prosara”. Skidding factor is 1.38 on the basis of relife areas and slope of terrain in FMU “Prosara”. According to that, average real skidding distance is 727 m for FMU “Prosara”. These skidding distances were compare with skidding distance which was obtained from the Forest management projects for compartments of 19, 20, 21, 22, 37, 47, 48 i 22/1. Average skidding distance in these compartments is 600 m. In these selected compartmets average geometric skidding distance is 427.5 m, and average real skidding distance is 590 m which were determined using ArcGIS software. When we compared average real skidding distance which was obtained by ArcGIS 10 with average skidding distance which was obtained from the Forest management projects for selected compartements, we found that there is 10 m difference between them. This difference is not statistically significant and real skiding distance which is determined by ArcGIS 10 can be used for determination of effect of skidder, and according to costs of skidding. Skidding factor for eight selected compartments was obtained by dividing the average real skidding distance from projects with average geometric skidding distance wich was obtained by ArcGIS, and its value is 1.57. Average skidding factor for FMU “Prosara” is 1.475.
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