Vascular flora of Mt Klekovača in Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Đorđije Milanović University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Forestry, S. Stepanovića 75A, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; email:
  • Jugoslav Brujić University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Forestry, S. Stepanovića 75A, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Vladimir Stupar University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Forestry, S. Stepanovića 75A, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; email:
  • Vojin Bucalo Romanijska 1C, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Jovan Travar
  • Rade Cvjetićanin University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11030 Belgrade, Serbia
Keywords: chorology, Dinaric Alps, Glyceria striata, Monarda didyma, rare plants, taxonomy


As the highest mountain in northwestern Dinaric Alps, Klekovača Mt (1961 m) is of a significance in the puzzle of floristic and vegetation diversity of this mountain range. It is located in western Bosnia (Figure 1) at the area of collision of two major climate types: Mediterranean from the south and Central European from the north. The border of the research area mainly follows the natural geomorphologic boundaries between Klekovača and neighbouring mountains, but at several places it was artificially drawn following the forest roads and avoiding the thermophilous vegetation around villages of Ataševac, Crljivica and Rečkovac in the southwestern corner of the research area (Figure 2). Flora and vegetation of the mountain is very diverse. From montane to subalpine levels various habitat types take turns: sciophilous montane and subalpine spruce forest (Figure 8), mixed beech, fir and spruce forests (Figure 5), subalpine beech forests (Slika 7), Scots pine forests, krumholtz with mountain pine (Figure 10), diverse montane and subalpine pastures, vegetation of mountain ridges (Figure 3), crevices od limestone rocks (Figure 4), hay meadows, wet meadows and alkaline fens (Figure 6). This diversity was recognized already during Austro-Hungarian reign, when the first protected area in B&H was proposed in 1910, which was ment to occupy 1748 hectares of the forests and open habitats of Klekovača Mt. The flora was the subject of researches of many botanists since the end of XIX century to present days: Fiala (1891, 1892, 1892a), Beck-Mannagetta (1901, 1903-1986), Handel-Mazzetti et al. (1905/06), Tregubov (1941), Abadžić et Šilić (1990), Topalić et al., (1991), Radojević et al. (1991), Lakušić et al. (1991) and Lakušić et Kutleša (1991), Bucalo et al. (2007, 2008), Stupar et al. (2010). After these researches the flora of forests and subalpine pastures has been fairly well elaborated, while the plant life of the vast montane hay and wet meadows remains completely unknown. For this paper flora has been studying in continuity in period 2004–2015 on 174 localities. On each locality (Appendix 1) we made the list of flora or phytocoenological releves, and collected other relevant data: locality label (L1-L174), locality name with precise destination, geographical coordinates, provisional name of the plant community, elevation, substrate and the date of collecting the data. Vascular flora of Klekovača Mt contains 812 taxa on subspecies level included in 97 families (Table 1). The most numerous species belong to families: Asteraceae (110), Poaceae (62), Rosaceae (44), Fabaceae (41) etc. Of the total number of taxa, 503 were recorded during the previous researches, while 309 were recorded for the first time by our research. Only 21 taxa previously mentioned were not confirmed. The allochthonous species Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. (Figures 11–12) was found new for Bosnia and Herzegovina, while Monarda didyma L. (Figure 13) was recorded for the first time as subspontaneous for Balkans. The 52 species are rare, 37 vulnerable, six critically endangered and three insufficiently known according to Red List proposal (Šilić 1992-1995). Six species are listed on Annex II of Habitats Directive: Campanula serrata, Cypripedium calceolus, Scilla litardierei, Arabis scopoliana, Tozzia alpina subsp. carpathica and Eryngium alpinum, with a note that Campanula serrata and Tozzia alpina subsp. carpathica require further work in order to be certainly confirmed on this mountain. Several species were recognized as true rarities in the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Callianthemum coriandrifolium (Figure 14), Rhodiola rosea (Figure 15), Androsace lactea (Figure 16), Cypripedium calceolus (Figure 17), Epipogium aphyllum, Campanula thyrsoides subsp. carniolica (Figure 19), Festuca alfrediana subsp. durmitorea, Pyrola chlorantha (Figure 18), Agrostis alpina and Erigeron atticus. The special attention was paid to taxonomical issues of some complicated groups such as: Festuca, Eleocharis austriaca, Aconitum sp., Stachys alpina (Figure 20), Heliosperma malyi (Figures 21–23), Hieracium and Potentilla thuringiaca complex.

Original Scientific Papers