Structure of spruce stands in the area of Vitoroga
Researches shown for this scientific study has been performed in the Norway spruce forests in the Vitoroga region of the Republic of Srpska. Nine stands located at altitudes from 1190 to 1685 meters were included in the study. We studied the site conditions and stand condition. Geological base consists of limestone and the soil types are kalkomelanosol, kalkokambisol and luvisol. The area is characterized by per-humid, mountain climate, that is, by high precipitation and cold winters with long laying snow. Dominant influence on the area climate has a maritime climate. The researched stands belong to the forest associations of Abieti – Piceetum subalpinum, Piceo–Abieti–Fagetum, Piceetum–Abietis montanum and Sorbo–Piceetum subalpinum. The stands are classified in three major types. In these basic types there are various structural forms: the stands close to selection structure and uneven-aged stands (two – floor and multi – floor ones). The largest structural difference can be found at the basic type II, where we found a stand with (close to) selection structure, an uneven-aged two – floor stand, as well as an unevenaged multi – floor stand. In all these basic types, according to the number of trees and volume, the spruce predominates in relation to other tree species. The number of trees in the researched stands ranges from 481 to 984 per hectare. The volume value ranges between 400 m3/ha to 882 m3/ha.
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