Glasnik Šumarskog fakulteta Univerziteta u Banjoj Luci Šumarski fakultet Univerziteta u Banjoj Luci en-US Glasnik Šumarskog fakulteta Univerziteta u Banjoj Luci 1512-956X Two rare and interesting species of Pezizales (fungi) from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Peziza montirivicola and Trichophaea flavobrunnea <p>Two interesting and rarely occurring species of fungi from the order Pezizales found in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented here. Ecology, morphology, microscopic characters and conservation status of <em>Peziza montirivicola</em> and <em>Trichophaea flavobrunnea</em> are briefly discussed in the paper. Notes on the similar species of operculate discomycetes are given.</p> Nedim Jukić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 27 5 16 10.7251/GSF1727005J Diameter increment of trees as a bioindicator of their vitality: a case study from Despotovac region <p>The research of the process of tree devitalization and decline was carried out in an artificiallyestablished Austrian pine stand in the area of Despotovac in Serbia. A diameter increment of 30 dominant trees classified on the basis of ocular assessment of the intensity of devitalization into the following three categories: healthy (with no obvious visual symptoms of decline), devitalized (with sparse crowns and noticeable but not developed symptoms of decline) and severely devitalized trees (trees with most of the crown dead) was studied. The stam discs for the analysis of their diameter increment were cutted at the breast height (1.3 m) in the field. In order to eliminate the influence of age on diameter increment and to facilitate mutual comparison of the obtained increment values we produced diameter increment indices for all three categories of the trees. These indices are performed as a ratio between the empirical and the fitted values of diameter increment (obtained using the appropriate regression equations) for each year of measurement. Having calculated these indices, double indices - I2 [%] were further determined in order to provide a quantitative estimate of the observed devitalization and determine the loss in the increment of devitalized and severely devitalized trees. We obtained these indices as a ratio of the diameter increment index of devitalized and severely devitalized trees to the diameter increment index of healthy trees, multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage value. The results obtained for all three categories of trees (healthy, devitalized and severely devitalized) reveal variations in the values of diameter increment indices as well as overlapping of their flow lines for the period from 1960 to 2000. These variations can be characterized as random and anticipated. This conclusion could be supported by the average values of diameter increment obtained in the stated period for the three groups of trees whose vitality was studied. In fact, the obtained values are roughly similar (4.30 mm - healthy trees, 3.24 mm - devitalized tree and 4.12 mm – severely devitalized trees). The assumption that the variations in diameter increment were caused by random factors is further supported by the observed `illogical` results showing that the average increment of devitalized trees was in this period lesser than the average increment of severely devitalized trees. This fact indicates that with regard to this indicator, the trees in the category of severely devitalized trees (defined as severely devitalized on the basis of the assessments taken in 2015) were in the period from 1960 to 2000 'more vital' than the trees in the category of devitalized trees (also determined according to the state in 2015). The results also show that all the analyzed groups of trees had approximately the same responses both to the stimulating and to the limiting factors of growth in the given period, with no clear differences in the response 'pattern'. Clear and marked deviations in the increment flows of devitalized and severely devitalized trees from the increment flows of healthy trees were first recorded in 2008. The negative increment trend and significant losses in the increment values have been determined both in devitalized and heavily devitalized trees, with the changes being more pronounced in severely devitalized trees, which was to be assumed. Thus, in 2014 the increment of this category of trees amounted to slightly less than 42% of the increment achieved by healthy trees. Also, the average increment in the group of devitalized trees in this year accounted for only 67% of the increment of healthy trees. However, a detailed insight and analysis of tree increment flows (increment index) in these three groups reveals that the first differences in the increment flows of these tree categories occurred in 2000. In fact, although there have been several years with a relatively higher increment (index size) of devitalized and severely devitalized compared to healthy trees, there has been a markedly decreasing trend in the increment of these two groups of trees compared to the increment of healthy trees. This fact points to the conclusion that the process of real tree devitalization has been going on for the last 15 years with the visible symptoms appearing only in 2015. The results of the conducted research and analysis show that there are many strong reasons for monitoring the vitality of forests and predicting their future development. Monitoring activities should be continuous and varied and they must include the most typical natural factors and economic subjects, especially the ones that are allegedly prone to disturb the natural balance and cause devitalization (Vučković et al., 2005). Considering all the above points, it can be concluded that a specific place in the context of sustainable forest management should be placed to the researches of the ‘real' increment values and anticipated - ‘normal’ increment flows as well as deviations of the real from the expected increment and the causes that disturb the anticipated increment flows of trees and stands.</p> Branko Stajić Slavoljub Dimitrijević Marko Kazimirović Vojislav Dukić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 27 17 29 10.7251/GSF1727017S Damaging effect of selective cuttings on natural regeneration of uneven-aged fir and beech forest in the area of FM “Oštrelj” Drinić <p>Selective cutting system makes the basis of management of the univen-aged beech and fir (spruce) forests in the mountainous areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Within this system there are segregated regeneration groups which are the subject of care measures – cutting. However, in addition to many good features of this type of management, primarily natural regeneration and reduced negative impact on the forest ecosystem, the system has its drawbacks, especially harmful effects on a stand within constant entries on the same surface. This can have a negative effect on the natural regeneration of the stands, which is the basis of this study. Within the surveyed area in the section number 59 in the area of FM “Oštrelj” Drinić sample plots were placed at three locations, namely: on the skid trail T7 (30 sample plots of 2.5 × 2.5 m at a distance of 13.5 m), right next to the skid trail T7 (30 sample plots 1 × 1 m at a distance of 13.5 m) and at a distance of 10 m from the skid trail T7 (30 sample plots 1 × 1 m at a distance of 13.5 m). On the sample plots state of natural regenaration was determined in the context of its number and health status i.e. level of damage from logging, especially machinery. The results showed that there is a clear difference in quality between the natural regeneration plants of the three research locations. Saplings on the skid trail, with all its characteristics, were in worse condition compared to the other two sites, and suffered the biggest negative impacts of logging. Saplings right next to the skid trail suffered some amount of damage from exploitation which resultet that these places had worse quality and quantity of regeneration in relation to the location of 10 m from the skid trail where the existing situation was relatively the best. Also, it was found that the number and quality of saplings was constantly increasing when taking into account the distance from the beginning of the skid trail, regardless of which type of sample plots is concerned. This progression clearly manifested on and right next to the skid trail, while at a distance of 10 m from the skid trail progression is less pronounced as a result of a lot smaller impact of logging in this place. It can be said that there is no significant difference in the quality of natural regeneration (in terms of number and quality of young plants or the degree of damage by logging) after 250 m from the beginning of the skid trail between the location right next to the skid trail and location at 10 m from the skid trail, while regeneration at the skid trail significantly departs up to the end of the skid trail (391.5 meters). When it comes to the type of injury with regard to the cause or part of the plant, results showed that on the skid trail damage is mainly manifested in the form of uprooting, bending and scratches on the bark of the plant, as a result of the great influence of mechanized assets that continually drag assortments at this location (especially in the lower part of the skid trail – on it’s first 200 m). Right next to the skid trail damages were mainly manifested as bark scratches and diseases, with a smaller share of damage caused by insects, while at 10 meters from the skid trail, the biggest damage was made by phytopatological diseases, which is logical because at this site damage from logging occupy a very small share.</p> Dalibor Nedimović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 27 31 40 10.7251/GSF1727031N Optimization of wood skidding factor calculation in the area of FM „Prijedor“ Prijedor <p>Determination of skidding distance is very important for operational planning in forestry because it is an indicator of forest accessibility. Value of skidding distance can be obtained in several ways: measurement of distance in the field by skid trails, calculating by using the mathematical models and by using of Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Operational planning in forestry is done on the level of compartment. It is not rare that forest practitioners do not have data about skidding trails length or secondary openness for specific compartment and in that case it is used straight direction from compartment gravity center to the belonging forest landing site or forest road, to calculate skidding distance. It is assumed that wood is equally distributed over area. When position and length of the skidding trails are known, then real skidding distance is calculated. Research area in this study was placed in two FMU, “Prosara”, where 9 compartments were analyzed, and “Kozara-Mlječanica”, where 18 compartments were analyzed. Skidding trails network was recorded using of GPS. Main aims of this study were: <br>- determination of geometric skidding distance;<br>- determination of real skidding distance by trails;<br>- determination of skidding factor for conversion of geometric in to real distance;<br>- comparison of established skidding factor with other studies results. <br>Density of road network in FMU “Prosara” is 11.32 m/ha, and in FMU “Kozara-Mlječanica” 12.85 m/ha. In all investigated compartment skidding trails were measured and it was established that secondary openness (by trails) is 119.7 m/ha in FMU “Prosara” and 96.5 m/ha in FMU “Kozara- Mlječanica”. Geometric skidding distance is 208 m in FMU “Prosara and 307 m in FMU “Kozara- Mlječanica”. Spatial analysis based on DTM and GIS determined classification of altitudes and slopes in categories, than were used for distinguishing of three relief areas, lowland, hilly and low mountains. Skidding factor is 1.2 for lowland, 1.45 for hilly and 1.55 for low mountains relief area. Multiplying of skidding factor with share of each relief area in total surface gave total skidding factor, 1.51. Slopes are classified in five categories and to each category skidding factor was dedicated according to Jeličić (1978) (Sokolović &amp; Bajrić, 2013). Based on surface share and skidding factor, total skidding factor is calculated, that is 1.22. Based on DTM analysis, skidding factor for FMU “Prosara” is 1.355 and for FMU “Kozara-Mlječanica” 1.37. Real skidding distance was calculate by multiplying of corresponding skidding factor with geometric distance. For FMU “Prosara” was obtained 324 m and for FMU “Kozara-Mlječanica” 417 m. Skidding factors were calculated according to gravity zones and average 1.84 for FMU “Prosara” and 1.85 for FMU “Kozara-Mlječanica” was obtained. Obtained skidding factors are 36% higher than theoretical. Considering skidding direction it was showed that in downhill skidding, factor is slightly higher than in uphill skidding.</p> Vladimir Petković Dane Marčeta Darko Ljubojević Igor Potočnik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 27 41 50 10.7251/GSF1727041P Welfare forest functions in the normative and planning documents and in the practice: example of the forests in the Banjaluka city area <p>The paper gives an overview on current position of forest functions, multiple use forestry, nature protection etc., in normative acts, planning documents and forestry practice on forests of Banjaluka as an example. In first part of this paper we analyzed all relevant normative acts and planning documents. Normative acts analyzed were: Law on Forests of RS (2008, 2013), Law on Nature Protection of RS (2014). Planning documents analyzed were: Forestry Development Strategy of RS (2012), Nature Protection Strategy of RS (2011), Spatial Plan of RS (2013), Forest Management Plan for “Donjevrbasko” Economy Area (2009), Spatial Plan of Banjaluka city (2014). From those analyzed documents we conclude that there are good formal preconditions for realization and implementation multiple use forestry and gaining of all forest functions (with emphasis on protection and social forest function). Analyzed documents were not perfectly harmonized, but they are not limitative for implementation of modern forestry practice. But, in the same time, realization of all of this almost totally missing in forestry practice (example of Banjaluka forests). Also nature protection practice is on the same level as it is for last fifty year in our country. So we can conclude that our practice of forestry and nature protection today has relatively formal good preconditions, but at the same time very poor realization of same in practice. Good example for those conclusions are forests of Banjaluka city – especially in the meaning of implementation of social and protective forest functions. We found that management plan for this forests has no goals that matches social or/and protective forest function, in spite the fact that many of inhabitants of Banjaluka city use this forest for recreation and rest in nature surrounding, for getting in touch with nature. At the same time, we cannot neglect protective function of this forest area for protection of life quality in a relatively big city (second biggest in B&amp;H). Management forest plan for this area do not have that in it goals. Now, it only has production goal, in spite the fact that all analyzed acts highlight importance of implementation multiple use forestry. We hope that one of important preconditions had allready happened with the Decision on proclamation of special purpose forests of the city of Banjaluka at the areas of Starčevica, Trapisti and Šibovi. Finally, we give some recommendations: forestry practice (in the Banjaluka city area) needs to take active action and get involved in the future processes in this area and problems. Banjaluka forests, primary Starčevica region/forest, could be an ideal example for implementing modern forestry practice: multiple use forestry in spite of only mono-functional forestry (production forestry function is now predominant); urban forestry; to initiate and take part in intersectoral cooperation – which is only possible way to implement all needed in forest areas which are in direct contact with urban areas, and their inhabitants. Benefits for forestry are in possibility to promote, educate and bring forestry coser to the people. If forestry do it as we show it on our examples (Figures 4–7) it is a very good way to educate people about forest, forestry and nature. We see it as a starting position for new forestry concept in Banja Luka, and in Republic of Srpska – B&amp;H. Therefore, the question of the relationship of forestry to solving the problem of Banjaluka forests is seen as a turning point in determining the current forestry development: whether we are moving step forward or may return a step back.</p> Aleksandra-Anja Dragomirović ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 27 51 65 10.7251/GSF1727051D European Red List of Habitats ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 27 67 67